About 3,500 U.S. babies each year die of Sudden Unexpected Infant Death (SUID), a broad category that includes deaths of infants from sudden infant death syndrome; accidental suffocation or strangulation in bed; and other unknown cause.
A study in the March 2018 Pediatrics, “National and State Trends in Sudden Unexpected Infant Death: 1990-2015,” (published online Feb. 12) examines trends in sudden unexpected infant deaths nationally and broken down by state from 1990 through 2015. The study found that while U.S. infant deathsdeclined sharply during the 1990s after an educational campaign called Back to Sleep (now known as the Safe to Sleep® campaign), there has been little change since 1999 and a wide variation in death rates from state to state.
The study analyzed the SUID rates overall and by subtype, finding that SUID rates dropped 7.2 percent from 1999 through 2015, as compared to 44.6 percent between 1990 and 1998. States that showed the most significant percentage declines in SUID rates when comparing 2000-2002 with 2013-2015 were California, Colorado, the District of Columbia, Florida, Kansas, Missouri, New York, Oregon, Washington and Wisconsin. In contrast, Alaska, Arkansas, Alabama, Kentucky and Louisiana had the highest SUID rates in 2013-2015, along with significant percentage increases when comparing 2000-2002 with 2013-2015 rates.
The authors conclude that there is a need to increase understanding about the factors that influenced the state-specific trends, and to find new approaches to encourage safe sleep practices.
The schedule (published online Feb. 6) is updated annually by a national team of medical experts and public health officials after a careful review of data on vaccines licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
“There are specific windows of time when vaccines work the best to protect a child, and the schedule is designed to maximize these opportunities,” said H. Cody Meissner, MD, FAAP, author of the statement and member of the AAP Committee on Infectious Disease. “Following the immunization schedule is the most important way to protect children as they grow into adulthood by keeping them free from vaccine-preventable diseases.”
The 2018 schedule reflects ongoing guidance on issuing an optional third dose of a mumps-containing vaccine during a mumps outbreak. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clarified this recommendation in October 2017 after noting an increase in cases and outbreaks since 2006.
Two doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine are highly effective in preventing mumps, but effectiveness decreases over time, according to the CDC. People in close contact settings are especially vulnerable, as seen in several large outbreaks of mumps on university campuses in 2015 and 2016.
The 2018 immunization schedules also include:
A recommendation for annual influenza vaccine for children ages 6 months and older. This recommendation remains unchanged from the 2017 schedule.
Additional information regarding the timing of the birth dose of a Hepatitis B vaccine for infants whose birth weights are greater than 2,000 grams.
A catch-up schedule that offers recommendations for children and adolescents who start late or are more than a month behind in vaccines.
The immunization schedules are approved annually by the AAP; the CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices; the American Academy of Family Physicians; and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
The following are some ways you can show your child how much you love them on Valentine’s Day or any day.?
Use plenty of positive and encouraging words when talking with your child. Try to avoid using sarcasm or mockery and get rid of put-downs from the words you use as a parent. Children often don’t understand your purpose, and if they do, these messages can create negative ways of talking and connecting with each other. Be a good role model by treating others how you would like to be treated.
Make an extra effort to set a good example about how to connect and talk with other people at home and in public. Use words like “I’m sorry,” “please,” and “thank you.” Children learn a lot from observing and imitating their parent’s behavior.
Respond promptly and lovingly to your child’s physical and emotional needs. Be available to listen to your child when he/she wants to talk with you even if it’s not the best time for you. Ask your child “How was your day?” and listen to the answer. If you see signs of anxiety or depression, ask your pediatrician for advice on how to help.
When your child is angry, grouchy or in a bad mood, give him a quick hug, cuddle, pat, secret nod or other sign of affection he responds to and then consider talking with him about the event when he’s feeling better. Never respond in violence if your child is in a bad mood.
Use non-violent forms of discipline. Parents should start using both rewards and restrictions many years before adolescence to help establish ways to encourage strengths and address concerns during the teenage years. Allowing children of any age to constantly break important rules without being disciplined only encourages more rules to not be followed. No matter what your child has done, keeping an open line of communication with the child is crucial.
Make plans to spend time alone with your young child or teen doing something she enjoys on a regular basis. Encourage your child to be active by going on walks, bicycle riding, or playing ball with you. Consider sending a Valentine’s Day card to your older child or teen. Think about making Valentine’s Day cards together with your preschool or younger school age child.
Mark family game nights on your calendar so the entire family can look forward to having ways to enjoy spending time together. Put a different family member’s name under each date, and have that person choose which game will be played that evening. Turn off cellphones and/or tablets during these family times.
Consider owning a pet if possible. Having a pet can help make some children, especially those with chronic illnesses and disabilities, feel better by increasing their physical activity, enhancing their overall positive feelings, and offering another way to connect with someone they care about.
One of the best ways to have your child learn more about good food choices is to encourage him to cook with you. Let him get involved in the entire process, from planning the menus to shopping for ingredients to the actual food preparation and its serving. It is wonderful when families eat together as much as possible. Good food, good conversations. These are excellent times to model healthy food choices. Refrain from using any electronic device, including your own phone, during meals.
As your child grows up, she’ll spend most of her time improving upon a variety of skills and abilities that she gains in all areas of her life. You should help her as much as possible by encouraging her and providing the tools and teaching she needs. Start reading to your child beginning at six months. Avoid TV in the first two years, monitor and watch TV with your older children and use TV time as one topic for conversation time with your children. Limit computer and video games.
Your child’s health depends a lot on the care and support you offer during his early years. By taking your child to the doctor regularly for well child or preventive health care visits, teaching him how to be safe from injuries, providing a healthy and nutritious diet, and encouraging good amounts of sleep, physical activity, and exercise throughout childhood, you help protect and strengthen his mind and body. Model these behaviors for your child(ren) on a daily basis. A good place to start is by the use of seat belts or child passenger safety seats every time you are in a car.
Help your child foster positive relationships with friends, siblings and members of the community. Consider inviting friends or neighbors to spend time drinking tea, having a meal, playing a game, or helping others in need. Encourage your child to play sports or be involved in activities that show teamwork.
One of your most important gifts as a parent is to help your child develop self-esteem. Your child needs your steady support and help to discover his strengths. He needs you to believe in him as he learns to believe in himself. Loving him, spending time with him, listening to him and celebrating lessons learned from his mistakes and successes are all part of this process.
Don’t forget to say “I love you” to children of all ages!